chat loading...
Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Footnotes, Bibliographies & Citation Tools: Citation Basics

This guide will help you get started using citations in your academic writing, and teach you the basics about Citation Management Software.

Citation Components

Bibliography – a list of sources at the end of a paper, artilce, book, etc. Sometimes called a "Works Cited" or "References" list.

Citation, "In-Text" – information inserted into the body of a text to indicate that a quote or idea came from some other work; includes enough information for the reader to find the source in the bibliography, works cited list, or references list.

Reference – infromation about one source, part of a list in a bibligoraphy, works cited list, or references list.

Endnote – a note at the end of a book or a section of a book that may contain a reference to a source.

Footnote – a note at the bottom of a page that may contain a reference to a source.

Citation Manager - an online service, browser add-on, or software product that helps you gather, organize, and use sources and citations.

When to Cite?


“One fish, two fish, red fish, blue fish” (Geisel, 1960, p. 1).


Theodore Seuss Geisel (1960), writing as Dr. Seuss, wrote that there are at least two fish and that some are red and some are blue.


There are many fish in the sea and they have unique characteristics (Geisel, 1960).